As a result of the dominance pattern of modern life that materialistic and egoistic, resulting in human psychological situation increasingly unstable. Order and tradition that has taken hold and tested its validity for centuries changed just like that, even though what he had acquired not necessarily able to answer a variety of everyday problems. Therefore not surprising that recently found in a variety of behaviors weird and nyeleneh which is regarded as a pathological symptom of modern33 life.
Whether we realize it or not, such modern phenomena have taken possession of the Muslim psyche. They often feel anxiety and deep concern, with no known source from which the sense of seductive thoughts (obsessional neurosis) it appears. Even deliberately, they try to understand her feelings through the help of paranormal, psychiatrists, counselors or through new ways that are believed to potency, but it did not bring significant results. It was at least due to: Firstly, they have forgotten the religious prescriptions governing psychological behavior, so they do not know how should that be done, and second, they try to understand psychopathology in themselves through modern theories, but in theory – modern theory is not able to penetrate most areas of psychological and spiritual mystery and religious areas, so they do not find what you are looking for.
Understanding and Assumption of Islamic Psychology
Pathology is the branch of medicine relating to the causes of illness and the process and its influence on the structure and function of the human body. All the doctors involved extensively with the science of pathology, but pathology specifically assess the disease process by testing of tissues and body fluids found during surgery or Autopsy.
Two major branches of pathology is the pathology of tissue or anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Anatomic pathology testing is based on the organs and tissues directly to determine the nature, extent and prediction of patient illness, such as in a biopsy or to explain the causes of death in patients in an Autopsy. Clinical pathology involving laboratory procedures to determine the concentration of various biochemical substances in body fluids, a collection of cells and forms in the blood, bone marrow and other tissues, the functions of organs like liver, kidneys, system status immunity, and identification of organisms are contagious.
Psychopathology, or mental illness, is sick of looking in the form of behavior and psychological functions that are not stable. This psychopathology term refers to a broad syndrome, which include abnormalities of sensory conditions, cognition, and emotion. Assumptions that apply in this field is that the psychopathological syndrome or a symptom is not merely a predictable response to the symptoms of specific mental stress, such as the death of a loved one, but rather a manifestation of a psychological or biological dysfunction in a person.
According to Chaplin, pathology (pathology) is the knowledge of the disease or disorder. Or, one disease condition or disorder. Medium psychopathology (psychopathology) is the branch of psychology concerned to investigate the disease or mental disorder symptoms and other abnormal symptoms.
The study of psychopathology can at least start from three assumptions, each of which has implications for psychological assumptions different. First, the human soul was essentially born in a state hospital, except in certain circumstances he was declared healthy; second, basically the human soul was born in neutral (not sick and unhealthy). Sick and healthy development depends on the process of his life; third, basically the human soul was born in good health, except in certain circumstances he declared sick.
The first assumption is developed flow of psycho-analysis, Sigmund Freud. According to Freud, the human soul was born in a bad condition, bad, negative or destructive nature. So he developed a positive, necessary companion ways that are impersonal and directives or direct. Such conclusion is based on Freud’s investigations of several patients who came to the laboratory. From this it seems that the theory of Freud’s psycho-analysis is only suitable for people who are sick and not consumed for healthy people. This assumption is pessimistic but also deny the truth of human existence, which in turn lead to dehumanization in psychology.
While the second assumption of the flow developed a radical behavioristic psycho-BF Skinner. According to him, the human soul was born in neutral conditions, such as a tabula rasa (white paper), only the environment that determines the direction of development of the soul. A good environment will form a good psychological mood and harmony, instead of a bad environment will have implications for the poor psychological symptoms as well. This assumption is in addition to deterministic and mechanistic, as well as to treat human beings who do not have a unique soul. The human soul is considered as an animal spirit that does not have a tendency to nothing and can be regulated like a machine or robot.
While the third assumption of developed flow humanistic psycho-Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. According to him, the human soul was born in a state of conscious, free, responsible dayadaya guided by the positive that comes from within himself to the expansion of the full human potential. In order to develop a positive direction, people do not need directions but requires accompanying personal atmosphere and full acceptance of all awards for the flowering of the positive potential inherent in him.
The third assumption on the nature emphasizes “normality” of man, not abnormalitasnya. Human normality is a natural nature, mujahidin, and from the first humans, are abnormalities is the new nature comes after the anomaly (inkhiraf) in human beings.
According to Atkinson, there are six criteria to determine one’s mental health, namely: first, the perception of realistic and efficient in mereaksi or evaluate what is happening in the world around him; second, knowing yourself, whether related to awareness or motive; third, the ability to consciously controlling behavior, such as holding Impulsive and aggressive behavior; fourth, self-esteem, and she can be accepted by the surrounding environment; the fifth, the ability to form bonds of love, such as no excessive demands on others and others can satisfy not only satisfy ourselves itself; sixth, and enthusiastic spirit that drives a person to achieve productivity.
Although this assumption is known as optimistic assumptions and recognize the power of the human soul, but the anthropocentric nature of human power depend only, without linking his theory to the absolute will of God. In Islam, even using the framework of the third assumption in building psikopatologinya theories, but he did not break away from theocentric paradigm. As the substance of Good and Holy, God does not give the human soul unless the soul that has a healthy trend, either, and the sacred. Human mental health is not merely a natural and mujahidin, but have been arranged in such a way by his Creator. From this framework, the criteria of neurosis and psychosis in the psychopathology of Islam is not only caused by nerve disorders or psychological nature, but also fraud against the rules of the rule of God. It is therefore not surprising that the theory of Islamic psychopathology more focused on spiritual and religious behavior.