By: Prof.. Dr. Simuh
(Launched at the Seminar on Islamic Influence On Culture of Java, 31 November 2000)
From the description in passing on the front, imagine that there is no significant clash between Islam and Javanese culture. Even between the two sides seem to support each other and need each other. The Islamic missionaries who generally led the Sufis do not have the science to govern and do not want to take the government from the hands of Javanese kings.
They just need protection or assistance from the government. Similarly, the kings of Java really need the support of Muslims since the end of the Majapahit kingdom has been a real strength. For public boarding school, religion is the value of the number one and everything; instead of rulers and supporters of Javanese culture literature, position and political power are the number one and everything.
For supporters of the literary culture centered Kejawen environment Javanese kingdoms in the interior area, religion is number two. What religion does not matter as long as you used to strengthen their position and their political power. So after Sultan Agung pesisiran empire broke the pesantren community support, quickly realized the need to set a cultural strategy to connect the two cultural environments. Cultural environment, namely the literary culture of the pesantren with Arabic religious and cultural environment with literary Kejawen Javanese culture centered in the palace environment Javanese kingdoms. Strategies for and incorporate Islamic elements in the center of Javanese culture in Javanese culture change begins with the calculation based on the Saka year journey of the sun, the calculations are based on Java-year-month journey, and adapted to the calculation Hijri. Weekly Islamic consisting of seven days, integrated with Java Weekly consisting of five daily, the Wage Monday, Tuesday Kliwon, and so on. Thus the name of the months of Java tailored to the Islamic month names, the Sura, Mulud, and so on.
Strategies that proclaimed Sultan Agung was exciting over the writers Kejawen to pursue subjects of Islamic teachings to develop new works by intercepting and processing the elements of Islamic teaching to enrich the development of Javanese literature. This persistence of Java writers immediately recognized that the teachings of Islam has grown quite complex. From the aspect of formal laws which they often rigid and formalist values legalists, it also has a philosophical aspect of the doctrine of Sufism is very smooth and rich. And then aspects of Sufism is a mystical philosophy very interesting to them, they were intercepted and they were to refine and enrich the culture of Javanese literature. Then came the wide range of literary Javanese mysticism sekar macapatan poured in, such as “Conduct Quthub”, “Conduct Sukma Lelana”, “Seh Amongraga Conduct”, and others. The stories chronicle fibers, such as “Babad Demak”, “Annals
Land of Java “,” Annals Tapel Adam “, and others, both prose (gancar) or poem (sekar macapat),” Fiber Centhini “, and others, which are generally expressed in sekar macapat.
Later in the period of revival and renewal of Javanese language and literature at the time of Krida smooth Kapujanggan Surakarta, the growth of language and literature of New Java peak fertility and glory. Age was the birth of Javanese language and literature, new or Classic. Ie in the days after the Dutch colonial government succeeded in breaking their tricks so the kingdom of Mataram gurem three countries, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, and Mangkunegaran. In that split this country through the Dutch palihan pretending to be a mediator to expose the entire social-political power and government Javanese kings. So from the time of separation, though the king was allowed to use the term Sunan or Sultan, but in fact lived as a retired employee of the Dutch colonial government alone. And because the king’s pension was a pretty good time, so as compensation the court poet was appointed to maintain the prestige and greatness of the king and his family through literature.
Then comes the resurrection and assimilation literatures ancient Javanese literature written back in the new Java and refined with elements of the teachings of Sufism in Islam. From the Activities of the poets and writers that mencuatnya New Javanese literature as a top literary greatness of Java. It said the peak of literary greatness of Java because in the last day of the new age kapujanggaan bermulalah (scientific age) and the domination of the Indonesian language. Namely the emergence of the era of era New Doctor meneriakan rational literary culture, not a mystical time again.
So in compensation to maintain the prestige of the kings of Java through the literature, the poet composed literatures of Ancient Java and seasoned with intercepts and refined elements of Sufi Islam in his work, his work acceptable to both the pesantren or Kejawen. Working writers Kejawen pengislaman very instrumental in Javanese literature and language. Thus language and literature, a new Java like “Fiber Centhini”, “Fiber Wedhatama”, “Fiber Wulangreh”, “Fiber Sanasunu”, “Babad Tanah Jawi”, “Babad Demak”, “Fiber Ambiya”, “Fiber Menak Jayengrana”, ” Fiber Paramayoga “,” Wirid Hidayat Jati “, various kinds of literary mysticism, and others, were very instrumental in opening people’s hearts and draw closer to the boarding school very interested and very proud of Walisanga tale, the story works in Java Land Babad, Babad Demak, the actual story is only fiction writers Kejawen. Even till today the kiai can not distinguish between the history of the fairy tales of writers Walisanga fabricated Mataram era in the top, especially the grass roots community. The influence of Sufism is very inhibiting the growth of scientific ways of thinking.
Age spread of Islam into Indonesia’s era of Sufi Islamic domination, which is marked with a bankruptcy and decline of ways in which scientific thinking emerged byword that the door of ijtihad was closed, which means no more mujtahid. So the propagator of religion Kiai
Islam in Java, in addition to a very busy reviewing the books of yellow, are also less aware of the problem of cultural strategies. For the followers of Kiai is important congregation of religious broadcasting and teaching the Koran. Instead of writers and poets Javanese beliefs, they must work, and to develop literary Javanese period (age of Islam) in addition to changing the stories Old Javanese, have also enriched and refined with a tap and cultivate the Islamic elements in addition to implementing strategies culture, is also a source of new material for their works. This strategy can be viewed as a lawyer-Islamic heritage of Javanese literature in order to be marketed in the boarding school community.
These efforts successfully raises the literary development of new Java, where Javanese language and literature became increasingly feudal style by creating ngoko Java language (for the lower class), kromo to (respect for old people), and kromo inggil (in honor of the working class gentleman). The creation myth of Walisanga story above, by the poet succeeded Kejawen Walisanga mythology also offered, as well as the time passed the transition process, from Kabudan age (age of Majapahit, a Hindu) to age Kewalen (Islamic era). So at the time of Kewalen (Islamic period), if any gentleman or imprisoned person who gave wangsit (revelation) is not a god anymore, but Sunan Kalijaga (Wali).
Puppet whose story comes from the Mahabharata and Ramayana fibers that Hinduism obviously just trying to be Islamkan. For example it is said that the puppet was fabricated of the Guardians, and that the king had Ngamarta very sacred talisman, the fiber KALIMASADA (Shahaadatayn). More unusual stories in the works of Fiber Ranggawarsita Paramayoga. In the fiber was told that the Devil had a daughter named Dajlah. At one point Dajlah conjured by the devil, has a way like a prophet’s wife Sis, the son of Prophet Adam. Then the wives of the Prophet Sis hidden devil, and sleep Dajlah together with Sis to contain the Prophet, and had a son named Syed Anwar (of light).
Because Anwar Sayid has the devil’s blood, it is not obedient to his father, went wandering to the East or India, and reduce the Gods in Hinduism (in the wayang story).
With the story explained that the Javanese kings had a pedigree line of descent kekanan prophets in Islam, are descendants of the flow left the Hindu gods. This story is an example of compensation to maintain the dignity of kings of Java through the power of literature after the Dutch colonial government stripped.
Another such example in Mangkunegara Wedhatama IV says:
The main selling Nulada / Tanah Jawi tumraping wong / wong Agung Ngeksi ing double / Panembahan Senapati / Kapati amarsudi / Ian sudaning vain desires / pinesu initiation / tanapi ing day ratri / amamangun karyenak tyasing sasama / / Wikan Mengkoning Samodra / kederan wus den ideri / kinemat kamot ing driya / rinegem sagegem dadi / dumadya angratoni / nenggih Kangjeng Ratu Kidul / ndedel nggayuh nggegana / umarak Marek maripih / sor Ian Wong parabawa Supreme Ngeksiganda / / Prajanjine Abipraya / saturan-turune wuri / mangkono trahing ngawirya / yen amasah mesu
mind / dumadya Glis dumugi / iya ing sakarsanipun / wong Agung Ngeksiganda / nugrahane prapteng mangkin / Purebred-pada tumareh darabe authority / /
For the Javanese, contohlah noble conduct of the king of Mataram, Panembahan Senapati. He is an expert initiation, rather abstain control of passion, which made day and night. He likes to please others.
Panembahan Senapati have mastered the secret of what lies on land and sea are covered in his heart. So Nyai Rara Kidul who ruled all creatures in the sea south of subtle subject under Senapati Panembahan greatness, and promised to maintain and protect the kings descended from the Panembahan.
That the Panembahan gentleman who was descended from the noble, if the conduct concerned would run immediately answered all her wishes. And barakahnya mensawabi descendants.